Optical frequency and time standard

S.N. Slyusarev

Al’manac of Modern Metrology № 3 (8) 2016, pages 130–147

The article shows theoretical principles of optical clocks` work, description of optical clocks on neutral atoms, optical standards on ions of metals and an optical frequency standard on cold strontium atoms.

Full texts of articles are available only in Russian in printed issues of the magazine.