Review of the state of development of mobile time and frequency standards for solving the problem of quantum leveling

V.F. Fateev, V.P. Lopatin, V.G. Palchikov, V.P. Sysoev

FSUE “VNIIFTRI”, Mendeleevo, Moscow region, Russia,

Al’manac of Modern Metrology № 1 (29) 2022, pages 43–62

Abstract. Highly stable frequency and time standards can be used to measure gravitational potential differences and orthometric height differences.
The paper reviews existing and prospective mobile (transportable) domestic and foreign time and frequency standards with an instability of 10–15–10–18, which can be used in quantum levels and when developing the “Quantum footgage” network. Information about Russian and foreign experiments on relativistic geodesy, which form the basis of quantum levels, is given.

Keywords: quantum level, time and frequency standard, quantum clock, optical frequency standard.

Full texts of articles are available only in Russian in printed issues of the magazine.